If tissue abnormalities or lesions are present in the oral and maxillofacial area, it's essential to determine if any pathology or disease is present. A complete review of a patient's medical history, a discussion of possible contributing factors, any associated symptoms, and the performance of a thorough clinical exam, all provide helpful information. However, this information may not be enough to make a precise diagnosis. In some cases, a biopsy to obtain a tissue sample from the area might also be required to examine the lesion on a microscopic level. Once the biopsy results are in, and a more definitive diagnosis is made, further testing can be recommended as necessary.